Mario E. Carvalho is Professor Emeritus, Faculty of Architecture, University of Manitoba. He taught in the Faculty of Architecture from 1968 until his retirement in 1998, and served in many administrative and advisory capacities. He holds degrees in Architecture and City Planning, B.Arch., M.C.P (Penn) and Ph.D (Edin) and was a registered Architect, a Member of Royal Architectural Institute of Canada, a Fellow of Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain, and a Fellow of Canadian Institute of Planners. He was also a member of American Planning Association and American Institute of Certified Planners. He has served as advisor on many Masters and Doctoral dissertations, and has worked with a number of other institutions of higher learning, including Goa College of Architecture, Goa, India; School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi, India; University of Nairobi, Kenya; University of Edinburgh, UK; Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA; University of Botswana, Africa; and University Federal de Paraiba, Joao Pessoas, Brazil. He has consulted with a number of national and international organizations, including the German Foundation for Developing Countries, Berlin; the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements, Nairobi; and Canadian International Development Agency; International Development Research Centre, Government of Canada, on city and regional planning projects in Canada, India, Africa and Brazil.